UCSD
Center for
Dark Silicon        

            
Professor
Michael B.Taylor

Professor
Steven Swanson

Dr.
Jack Sampson

   

Welcome to the UCSD Center for Dark Silicon.

Our team was among the first to demonstrate the existence of a utilization wall which says that with the progression of Moore's Law, the percentage of a chip that we can actively use within a chip's power budget is dropping exponentially! The remaining silicon that must be left unpowered is now referred to as Dark Silicon.

Our research on Conservation Cores and GreenDroid proposes new architectures that exploit dark silicon. Our paper on the The Four Horsemen (slides) overviews the landscape of architectural approaches to addressing dark silicon. This work was recently published in the IEEE Micro Dark Silicon Issue. In addition to researching architectures for dark silicon, we look more broadly at sources of under-utilization in current day chips, spanning from a) power limitations because of poor CMOS scaling, b) overly large software engineering costs for parallelizing programs for multicore chips, and c) lack of parallel application domains.

Our research attacks each of these problems by 1) reinventing processor design to make use of dark silicon, 2) utilizing existing cores better through better parallel software engineering tools and 3) finding new parallel application classes to put cores to work.

 Projects    


The Study of Dark Silicon





GreenDroid Kremlin The San Diego Vision
Benchmark Suite



 Dark Silicon

  1. A Landscape of the New Dark Silicon Design Regime
    Michael Taylor.
    IEEE Micro, Sep/Oct 2013. (pdf) (bib)

  2. Exploring Energy Scalability in Coprocessor-Dominated Architectures for Dark Silicon
    Qiaoshi Zheng, Scott Ricketts,
    Steven Swanson, Michael Bedford Taylor, and Jack Sampson
    Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, 2013. (paper)

  3. Is Dark Silicon Useful?
    Harnessing the Four Horsemen of the Coming Dark Silicon Apocalypse

    (Cite this for first synthesis of approaches to attacking Dark Silicon.)
    Michael B. Taylor
    Design Automation Conference (DAC), June 2012. (pdf) (slides) (bib)
    Also presented at the Dark Silicon Workshop (DaSi), 2012.

  4. Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of Mature Computations.
    (Cite this for first peer-reviewed Utilization Wall & Dark Silicon Analysis.
    Also for heterogeneity as a solution to dark silicon problem.)

    Ganesh Venkatesh, John Sampson, Nathan Goulding, Saturnino Garcia, Slavik Bryskin, Jose Lugo-Martinez, Steven Swanson, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS), March 2010. (pdf) (talk pdf, talk ppt) (bib)

  5. GreenDroid: A Mobile Application Processor for a Future of Dark Silicon
    (Cite this for dark silicon's impact on multicore scaling.
    Also, for the GreenDroid massively heterogeneous processor.)

    Nathan Goulding, Jack Sampson, Ganesh Venkatesh, Saturnino Garcia, Joe Auricchio, Jonathan Babb, Michael Bedford Taylor and Steven Swanson.
    Proceedings of HOTCHIPS, August 2010. (pdf) (talk ppt) (bib) (youtube)

  6. The GreenDroid Mobile Application Processor: An Architecture for Silicon's Dark Future
    Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Jack Sampson, Ganesh Venkatesh, Saturnino Garcia, Joe Auricchio, Po-Chao Huang, Manish Arora, Siddhartha Nath, Jonathan Babb, Steven Swanson, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    IEEE Micro, March 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  7. Efficient Complex Operators for Irregular Codes
    Jack Sampson, Ganesh Venkatesh, Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Saturnino Garcia, Steven Swanson, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), February 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  8. QsCores: Trading Dark Silicon for Scalable Energy Efficiency with Quasi-Specific Cores
    Ganesh Venkatesh, John Sampson, Nathan Goulding, Sravanthi Kota Venkata, Michael Bedford Taylor, and Steven Swanson
    International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO), December 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  9. GreenDroid: An Architecture for the Dark Silicon Age
    Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Jack Sampson, Qiaoshi Zheng, Vikram Bhatt, Steven Swanson and Michael Bedford Taylor
    Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASPDAC), February 2012. (pdf) (bib)

  10. Conservation Cores: Energy-Saving Coprocessors for Nasty Real World Code
    Jack Sampson, Ganesh Venkatesh, Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Saturnino Garcia, Manish Arora, Siddhartha Nath, Vikram Bhatt, Steven Swanson, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    Languages, Compilers, Tools and Theory for Embedded Systems (LCTES),
    Research Highlights, Invited Talks, April 2011. (pdf)

  11. An Evaluation of Selective Depipelining for FPGA-based Energy-Reducing Irregular Code Coprocessors.
    Jack Sampson, Manish Arora, Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Ganesh Venkatesh, Jonathan Babb, Vikram Bhatt, Michael Bedford Taylor and Steven Swanson.
    Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL), September 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  12. Greendroid: Exploring the next evolution in smartphone application processors
    Steven Swanson and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    Communications Magazine, IEEE 49(4):112 -119, April 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  13. Kremlin: Rebooting and Rethinking gprof for the Multicore Age (Cite this for Kremlin.)
    (aka Automatic Parallelism Planning and Discovery with Kremlin)
    Saturnino Garcia, Donghwan Jeon, Chris Louie, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI), June 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  14. Reducing the Energy Cost of Irregular Code Bases in Soft Processor Systems
    Manish Arora, Jack Sampson, Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Jonathan Babb, Ganesh Venkatesh, Michael Bedford Taylor and Steven Swanson.
    Field Customizable Computing Machines (FCCM), May 2011. (pdf) (bib)

 Collaborations


Our collaborators here at UCSD include Dean Tullsen, Jason Mars, Lingjia Tang, Yoav Freund, Serge Belongie, CK Cheng, and the members of Calit2.


We advise or co-advise a group of fantastic graduate students and staff members; including:
Manish Arora
Joe Auricchio
Vikram Bhatt
David Curran
Saturnino Garcia
Nathan Goulding
Anshuman Gupta
Sravanthi Kota Venkata
Donghwan Jeon
Christopher Louie
Scott Ricketts
Jack Sampson
Qiaoshi Zheng

Veterans of the Center include:

Ganesh Venkatesh, PhD   (Intel)
Jack Sampson, PhD    (UCSD)
Slavik Bryksin, MS (Qualcomm)
Jinseok Lee, MS (Samsung)
Hyojin Sung, MS (UIUC PhD Program)
Po-Chao Huang, MS (Broadcomm)
Jose Lugo Martinez,     MS (Indiana PhD Program)
Patrick Li, MS (Intel)
Daniel Stufflebean, MS (AMD)
Adam Risoldi, MS(IBM)
Ikkjin Ahn MS(Google)
Shane Mainali BS (Microsoft)

 Recent News

October 2013 IEEE Micro Special Issue on Dark Silicon is out!
Guest Editors: UCSD's Taylor and Swanson. See our introduction.
October 2013 Updated version of Four Horseman paper: A Landscape of the New Dark Silicon Design Regime, Michael Taylor, IEEE Micro Sep/Oct 2013.
September 2013 Jack Sampson starts as a professor at Penn State University!
September 2013 Saturnino Garcia starts as a professor at University of San Diego!
June 2012Our paper Is Dark Silicon Useful?
Harnessing the Four Horsemen of the Coming Dark Silicon Apocalypse
is appearing in this year's Design Automation Conference (DAC).
May 2012Quoted right at the beginning of this May 2012 IEEE Computer Magazine Article on Dark Silicon, right after Bill Dally! GreenDroid and Conservation Cores get a big shootout for being a key approach for attacking the Dark Silicon problem.
April 2012Anshuman wins best poster across our entire CSE department (best out of 38 posters) at the Jacobs School of Engineering Research Expo! Anshuman continues a group tradition started by DJ and Sat last year, when they won best poster (what are the odds?!). Way to go Anshuman!
Feb 2012Submit to the Dark Silicon Workshop, DaSI:

Aug 2011GreenDroid QsCores paper accepted into MICRO! Congrats, Ganesh
June 2011NSF funds my proposal to support prototyping efforts!
June 2011OOPSLA paper accepted! Congrats to DJ, Sat, and Chris!
May 2011FPL paper accepted! Congrats to Jack and Manish!
May 2011Our student, Dr. Ganesh Venkatesh, successfully defends his thesis against 5 UC professors! Ganesh will be joining Intel Research.
April 2011 GreenDroid featured on front page of Technology Review, and then slashdot.org.
March 2011 GreenDroid IEEE Micro article, The GreenDroid Mobile Application Processor: An Architecture for Silicon's Dark Future now available!
April 2011 Kremlin wins best Computer Science & Engineering poster
(out of 40 posters!) at the Jacobs School of Engineering Research Expo!
April 2011 Invited talk on Conservation Cores and GreenDroid at LCTES!
March 2011 Parkour paper accepted into HOTPAR. Awesome work DJ!
March 2011 C-cores for FPGAs paper accepted into FCCM. Way to go Manish!
Feb 2011 Kremlin paper accepted into PLDI!
Feb 2011 Kremlin wins best student poster in PPoPP 2011!
Nov 2010 UCSD ACM Programming Team, which I coach, invited to Worlds in Egypt!
Nov 2010 HPCA paper on ECOcores (cores with Extreme CISC Operators) accepted.
Oct 2010 NSF funds my lab for $376K to attack issues in multicore programmability!
Sept 2010 Dr. Swanson and I have minted our first PhD student: Dr Jack Sampson! Jack will be continuing with us as a postdoc so he can shephard some of his pending papers out to the presses!
Aug 2010 Our student, Nathan Goulding, gives an outstanding talk on the GreenDroid work at HOTCHIPS!

We were the only academic talk in the entire conference.

We got coverage in the Register.co.uk, EE Times, IEEE Spectrum and others:


MIT Technology Review App-Specific Processors to Fight Dark Silicon.
EETimes Android processor shines light on dark silicon.
San Diego Tribune UCSD: New technology will extend smartphone battery life.
IEEE Spectrum GreenDroid Application Processor Will Battle Dark Silicon.
Register.co.uk CPU, GPU makers gussie up their wares for Hot Chips.
EETimes Asia UCSD researchers develop efficient app-specific cores.
SlashdotThe Fight Against Dark Silicon.
Embedded Insights UCSD turns on the light on dark silicon.
Light Reading Chip Design Fights Smartphone Power Limits.
inhabitat 'Dark Silicon' Could Boost Smartphone Battery Life 11X.

May 2010 HOTCHIPS paper on our C-core-based chip accepted:
GreenDroid: A Mobile Application Processor for a Future of Dark Silicon.
March 2010 Our student, Jack Sampson, gives an awesome talk on the Conservation Cores paper at ASPLOS!
March 2010 Our paper, Bridging the Parallelization Gap: Automating Parallelism Discovery and Planning, was accepted into HOTPAR 2010.
Jan 2010 Conservation Cores camera ready version ready. If you read one architecture paper this year, read this ASPLOS 2010 Paper.
Nov 2009 We just released The San Diego Vision Benchmark Suite, a benchmark for the vision application domain, written in MATLAB and clean C. It's available at parallel.ucsd.edu/vision.
Nov 2009 Our paper, Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of Mature Computations, was accepted into ASPLOS 2010.
Oct 2009 Our student, Sravanthi Kota Venkata, presents our IISWC paper on the San Diego Vision Benchmark Suite in Austin, TX.
July 2009 MBT Successfully passed the FAA written test and landed an airplane four times at Long Beach Airport (LGB)!
June 2009 National Science Foundation CAREER Award:
Energy-Efficient Parallel Architectures for Computer Vision.



 Ideal Students for CDS

The kinds of students that will succeed best in the Center for Dark Silicon are those who love to build agressive but elegant systems and tune their performance -- compilers, graphics renderers, simulators, computers, dynamic translation emulators, operating systems, boards or even chips. They like coding, have written a lot of it, and know how to write solid, elegant code (ala Writing Solid Code or The Pragmatic Programmer), and don't mind telling others how to do it -- and maybe have worked at companies on software systems or chip design. They tend to have lots of little side projects and experiments that they have done outside of class. They might enjoy reverse-engineering things as well.


 Selected Publications (Click to view by topic)

  1. Is Dark Silicon Useful?
    Harnessing the Four Horsemen of the Coming Dark Silicon Apocalypse

    Michael B. Taylor
    Design Automation Conference (DAC), June 2012. (pdf) (bib) (slides)

  2. GreenDroid: An Architecture for the Dark Silicon Age
    Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Jack Sampson, Qiaoshi Zheng, Vikram Bhatt, Steven Swanson and Michael Bedford Taylor
    Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASPDAC), February 2012. (pdf) (bib)

  3. QsCores: Trading Dark Silicon for Scalable Energy Efficiency with Quasi-Specific Cores
    Ganesh Venkatesh, John Sampson, Nathan Goulding, Sravanthi Kota Venkata, Michael Bedford Taylor, and Steven Swanson
    International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO), December 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  4. Kismet: Parallel Speedup Estimates for Serial Programs
    Donghwan Jeon, Saturnino Garcia, Chris Louie, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    Annual ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA), October 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  5. An Evaluation of Selective Depipelining for FPGA-based Energy-Reducing Irregular Code Coprocessors.
    Jack Sampson, Manish Arora, Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Ganesh Venkatesh, Jonathan Babb, Vikram Bhatt, Michael Bedford Taylor and Steven Swanson.
    Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL), September 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  6. The GreenDroid Mobile Application Processor: An Architecture for Silicon's Dark Future
    Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Jack Sampson, Ganesh Venkatesh, Saturnino Garcia, Joe Auricchio, Po-Chao Huang, Manish Arora, Siddhartha Nath, Jonathan Babb, Steven Swanson, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    IEEE Micro, March/April 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  7. Kremlin: Rebooting and Rethinking gprof for the Multicore Age
    (aka Automatic Parallelism Planning and Discovery with Kremlin)
    Saturnino Garcia, Donghwan Jeon, Chris Louie, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI), June 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  8. Unifying manycore and FPGA processing with the RUSH Architecture
    Brandon Beresini, Scott Ricketts, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    NASA/ESA Conference on Adaptive Hardware and Software Systems (AHS-2011), June 2011. (pdf)

  9. Conservation Cores: Energy-Saving Coprocessors for Nasty Real World Code
    Jack Sampson, Ganesh Venkatesh, Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Saturnino Garcia, Manish Arora, Siddhartha Nath, Vikram Bhatt, Steven Swanson, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    Languages, Compilers, Tools and Theory for Embedded Systems (LCTES),
    Research Highlights, Invited Talks, April 2011. (pdf)

  10. Greendroid: Exploring the next evolution in smartphone application processors
    Steven Swanson and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    Communications Magazine, IEEE 49(4):112 -119, April 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  11. Parkour: Parallel Speedup Estimates for Serial Programs
    Donghwan Jeon, Saturnino Garcia, Chris Louie, Michael Bedford Taylor.
    HOTPAR, June 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  12. Reducing the Energy Cost of Irregular Code Bases in Soft Processor Systems
    Manish Arora, Jack Sampson, Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Jonathan Babb, Ganesh Venkatesh, Michael Bedford Taylor and Steven Swanson.
    Field Customizable Computing Machines (FCCM), May 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  13. Kremlin: Like gprof, but for Parallelization
    Donghwan Jeon, Saturnino Garcia, Chris Louie, Sravanthi Kota Venkata and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming (PPoPP), February 2011. (pdf, poster pdf) (bib)

  14. Efficient Complex Operators for Irregular Codes
    Jack Sampson, Ganesh Venkatesh, Nathan Goulding-Hotta, Saturnino Garcia, Steven Swanson, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), February 2011. (pdf) (bib)

  15. Bridging the Parallelization Gap: Automating Parallelism Discovery and Planning,
    Saturnino Garcia, Donghwan Jeon, Chris Louie, Sravanthi Kota Venkata, Michael Bedford Taylor.
    HOTPAR, June 2010. (pdf) (bib)

  16. GreenDroid: A Mobile Application Processor for a Future of Dark Silicon
    Nathan Goulding, Jack Sampson, Ganesh Venkatesh, Saturnino Garcia, Joe Auricchio, Jonathan Babb, Michael Bedford Taylor and Steven Swanson.
    HOTCHIPS, August 2010. (pdf) (talk ppt) (bib)(youtube)

  17. Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of Mature Computations.
    Ganesh Venkatesh, John Sampson, Nathan Goulding, Saturnino Garcia, Slavik Bryskin, Jose Lugo-Martinez, Steven Swanson, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS), March 2010. (pdf) (talk pdf, talk ppt) (bib)

  18. SD-VBS: The San Diego Vision Benchmark Suite.
    Sravanthi Kota Venkata, Ikkjin Ahn, Donghwan Jeon, Anshuman Gupta, Christopher Louie, Saturnino Garcia, Serge Belongie, and Michael Bedford Taylor.
    IEEE International Symposium on Workload Characterization (IISWC), October 2009. (pdf) (Download SD-VBS) (bib)

  19. Energy and Switch Area Optimizations for FPGA Global Routing Architectures
    Yi Zhu, Yuanfang Hu, Michael B. Taylor, and Chung-Kuan Cheng
    ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES), January 2009. (pdf) (bib)

  20. Tiled Multicore Processors.
    Michael B. Taylor, Walter Lee, Jason E. Miller, David Wentzlaff, Ian Bratt, Ben Greenwald, Henry Hoffman, Paul R. Johnson, Jason S. Kim, James Psota, Arvind Saraf, Nathan Shnidman, Volker Strumpen, Matthew I. Frank, Saman Amarasinghe, and Anant Agarwal.
    in Multicore Processors and Systems, Springer,
    edited by Steve Keckler, Kunle Olukotun, and Peter Hofstee, 2009. (link)

  21. Advancing Supercomputer Performance Through Interconnection Topology Synthesis.
    Yi Zhu, Michael Taylor, Scott B. Baden and Chung-Kuan Cheng
    International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), November 2008. (pdf) (bib)

  22. Stream Multicore Processors.
    Michael B Taylor, Walter Lee, Jason Eric Miller, David Wentzlaff, Ian Bratt, Ben Greenwald, Henry Hoffmann, Paul Johnson, Jason Kim, James Psota, Arvind Saraf, Nathan Shnidman, Volker Strumpen, Matt Frank, Rodric Rabbah, Saman Amarasinghe, and Anant Agarwal.
    In Processor Design: System-on-chip Computing for ASICs and FPGAs (hardcover)
    Edited by Jari Nurmi (Editor)
    , 2007. (link)

  23. FPGA Global Routing Architecture Optimization Using a Multicommodity Flow Approach.
    Y. Hu, Y. Zhu, M.B. Taylor, and C.K. Cheng.
    IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Design (ICCD), pp. 144-151, 2007. (pdf)

  24. Runtime checking for program verification.
    Karen Zee, Viktor Kuncak, Michael Taylor, and Martin Rinard.
    7th International Workshop, RV 2007, Vancouver, Canada, March 13, 2007, Revised Selected Papers.
    Lecture Notes on Computer Science, Springer Berlin, vol. 4839/2007, p. 202-213. (bib)

  25. Tiled Microprocessors.
    Michael B Taylor
    PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, February 2007. (pdf) (bib)

  26. Scalar Operand Networks,
    by Michael B Taylor, Walter Lee, Saman Amarasinghe, and Anant Agarwal.
    IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (Special Issue on On-chip Networks) (TPDS), February 2005. (pdf) (Appendix pdf) (bib)

  27. Deionizer: A Tool for Capturing and Embedding I/O Calls,
    by Michael Bedford Taylor.
    MIT-CSAIL-TR-2004-037; June 7, 2004. (pdf and ps)

  28. Evaluation of the Raw Microprocessor:
    An Exposed-Wire-Delay Architecture for ILP and Streams

    by Michael B Taylor, Walter Lee, Jason Miller, David Wentzlaff, Ian Bratt, Ben Greenwald, Henry Hoffmann, Paul Johnson, Jason Kim, James Psota, Arvind Saraf, Nathan Shnidman, Volker Strumpen, Matt Frank, Saman Amarasinghe, and Anant Agarwal.
    Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA), June 2004. (pdf) (bib)

  29. Energy Characterization of a Tiled Architecture Processor with On-Chip Networks,
    by Jason Sungtae Kim, Michael B Taylor, Jason Miller, and David Wentzlaff.
    International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), August 2003. (pdf) (bib)
     
  30. Scalar Operand Networks:
    On-chip Interconnect for ILP in Partitioned Architectures
    ,
    by Michael B Taylor, Walter Lee, Saman Amarasinghe, and Anant Agarwal.
    Proceedings of the International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), February 2003. (pdf) (bib)  

  31. A 16-issue multiple-program-counter microprocessor
    with point-to-point scalar operand network
    ,
    by Michael B Taylor, Jason Kim, Jason Miller, David Wentzlaff, Fae Ghodrat, Ben Greenwald, Henry Hoffman, Paul Johnson, Walter Lee, Arvind Saraf, Nathan Shnidman, Volker Strumpen, Saman Amarasinghe, and Anant Agarwal.
    Proceedings of the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), February 2003. (pdf) (bib)

  32. The Raw Microprocessor:
    A Computational Fabric for Software Circuits and General Purpose Programs
    ,
    by Michael B Taylor, Jason Kim, Jason Miller, David Wentzlaff, Fae Ghodrat, Ben Greenwald, Henry Hoffman, Jae-Wook Lee, Paul Johnson, Walter Lee, Albert Ma, Arvind Saraf, Mark Seneski, Nathan Shnidman, Volker Strumpen, Matt Frank, Saman Amarasinghe and Anant Agarwal.
    IEEE Micro, March/April 2002. (pdf) (bib)

  33. Baring it all to Software: Raw Machines,
    by Elliot Waingold, Michael Taylor, Devabhaktuni Srikrishna, Vivek Sarkar, Walter Lee, Victor Lee, Jang Kim, Matthew Frank, Peter Finch, Rajeev Barua, Jonathan Babb, Saman Amarasinghe, and Anant Agarwal.
    IEEE Computer, September 1997, pp. 86-93.  (pdf) (bib)

  34. The Raw Compiler Project,
    by Anant Agarwal, Saman Amarasinghe, Rajeev Barua, Matthew Frank, Walter Lee, Vivek Sarkar, Devabhaktuni Srikrishna, and Michael Taylor.
    Proceedings of the Second SUIF Compiler Workshop, Stanford, CA, August 21-23, 1997.
    (pdf) (bib)
     
  35. The RAW Benchmark Suite: Computation Structures for General Purpose Computing ,
    by Jonathan Babb, Matthew Frank, Victor Lee, Elliot Waingold, Rajeev Barua, Michael Taylor, Jang Kim, Srikrishna Devabhaktuni, and Anant Agarwal.
    IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM), Napa Valley, CA, April 1997.  (pdf) (bib)

  36. The Raw Specification
    by Michael B Taylor.
    Final Version (5.02). December 2005. (pdf)

    ... More publications ...

A tool for deionization, which enables application embedding and improved benchmark precision.


Contact Address


Prof. Michael B. Taylor

Center for Dark Silicon
Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering
University of California, San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive EBU 3b-3202 MC 0404
La Jolla, CA 92093-0404